Entropy and Free Energy


This is an Open Educational Resource designed to summarise key concepts in thermodynamics that are required for entry to an undergraduate course. The resource is designed for first year undergraduates and revisits ideas from A-level. It also begins to show how they are applied early in a University course. The resource was created as part of The Royal Society of Chemistry’s work under the National HE STEM Programme.

Learning Objectives - on completion of this activity you should be able to:
* Relate entropy to the temperature and state of a substance
* Calculate DS for the system and surroundings
* Calculate DG
* Use DS or DG to predict whether a process will be spontaneous
* Describe the limitations of DS or DG for predicting whether a reaction will occur
* Appreciate the connection between entropy and the distribution of energy between quantised energy levels in the system.

It is anticipated that users will have some knowledge of A-level chemistry before undertaking the activity but, even with good subject knowledge, there should also be some material here they are unfamiliar with. This resource is not designed to support any specific A-level specification but may also be used in schools alongside other resources where appropriate.

Related Resources
This resource builds on some of the ideas presented in the activities on dynamic equilibria. Other chemistry resources are also available:

This OER has been created in Articulate and is made available as an interactive learning object for your VLE. The associated PowerPoint file may also be useful for learning and teaching. Please see the read me file for information on how to use and adapt the resource and for known errors.

Declan Fleming
chemistry,thermodynamics,entropy,temperature,DS,DG,quantised energy levels

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